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智利海地:灾难程度为何大不同  

2010-03-09 19:28:34|  分类: 自己的百科 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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智利海地:灾难程度为何大不同 - perown - 卓越天堂OutstandingsSky


The earthquake in Chile was far stronger than the one that struck Haiti last month -- yet the death toll in this Caribbean nation is magnitudes higher.


智利地震震级远高于海地地震,然而海地的死亡人数却远远高于智利。

The reasons are simple.


原因很简单。

Chile is wealthier and infinitely better prepared, with strict building codes, robust emergency response and a long history of handling seismic catastrophes. No living Haitian had experienced a quake at home when the Jan. 12 disaster crumbled their poorly constructed buildings.


智利比海地富裕,防范也更充分,房屋建造条例很严格,急救机制完善,并有着多年应对地震危机的经验。而1月12日发生的海地地震却让海地人措不及防,质量不过硬的房屋也毫无抵抗之力。

And Chile was relatively lucky this time.


并且这一次运气也多少帮了智利一把。

Saturday's quake was centered offshore an estimated 21 miles (34 kilometers) underground in a relatively unpopulated area while Haiti's tectonic mayhem struck closer to the surface -- about 8 miles (13 kilometers) -- and right on the edge of Port-au-Prince.


智利这次地震,震中在海下21英里,周边地区人口不多,而引起大面积建筑物倒塌的海地地震,震中更靠近地面——地下6英里——而且就在太子港不远处。

"Earthquakes don't kill -- they don't create damage -- if there's nothing to damage," said Eric Calais, a Purdue University geophysicist studying the Haiti quake.


普渡大学的地质学家Eric Calais说:“地震不会造成人员伤亡,不会造成损失,如果根本没什么东西让它们去破坏的话。”

The U.S. Geological Survey says eight Haitian cities and towns suffered "violent" to "extreme" shaking in last month's 7-magnitude quake, by contrast, no Chilean urban area suffered more than "severe" shaking -- the third most serious level.


美国地质调查局称海地有八个城镇在地震中受到“猛烈”甚至“极度”的震动,而智利城市受到的震动都没有超过“严重”——震动第三级的程度。

In terms of energy released at the epicenter, said Calais, the Chilean quake was 900 times stronger. But energy dissipates rather quickly as distances grow from epicenters -- and the ground beneath Port-au-Prince is less stable by comparison and "shakes like jelly," says University of Miami geologist Tim Dixon.


Calais说,智利地震释放的能量比海地高出900倍,但离震中越远,能量消散越快。然而,根据迈阿密大学地质学家Tim Dixon的说法,太子港相比之下,地基不够牢固,地震来袭时“晃得像果冻”。
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